Ubuntu 14.04 Gnome Edition on Intel HD 4000 and
Debian Sid (updated to latest packages) with Nvidia GTS 8600
Broken: All (Tested on 2.71 and 2.69)
Short description of error
Somewhere between missing functionality and a Bug, it seems that if your armature is scaled to negative values (not tested with positive but should give the same result) and apply the scale in object mode (back to 1,1,1), the animation keyframes do not get scaled accordingly.
It seems the IPO information is not translated, and the functionality to convert that seems to be missing.
This has been a issue for quite a long time, exporting models to other formats (ie, game engines requiring scale 1 for things like parent relations), and multiple reports could be found on the Blenderartists forum (example of matching description is http://blenderartists.org/forum/archive/index.php/t-195566.html)
Exact steps for others to reproduce the error
Take any model with Armature and animations, scale in object mode (to get big visual results scale to 0.019 or something like that), apply the scale in object mode, play a animation in pose mode.