Dev-Note: see simplified file, crash backtrace and how to reproduce this in @Dalai Felinto (dfelinto)'s replies below.
Windows 8.1 64-bit, gtx970, intel core i5-4570
Render Cycles. Click render. Start Synchronizing object. 3 sec and Blender crash. EXCEPTION_ACCESS_VIOLATION
Animate skined mesh. At some point triggered Explode modifier. Further cloth simulation.
Further particle system hair. One system hair dynamics. When rendering start Blender crash.
Render worked in blender internal render and blender 2.74.
My English bad. Just watch the video https://youtu.be/mdlaY8SMa9s