Xubuntu (Ubuntu) 16.04, Nvidia GTX 720
Meshes seem to freak out (looks like when you have 2 meshes in the same spot that are Z-fighting - reference image below) when you turn on dyntopo for the first time (I say first time - I will explain later) or when you change engines. Pretty much any action fixes it. Switch from any engine to Cycles - looks normal, but when you start sculpting, 1) it doesn't sculpt and 2) it has the 'Z-fighting' problem but seems to get 'erased' when you go over it with the brush. Switching from any engine to BI or BG will make the object large and dark, and any action makes it correct size and light colored again.
Open Blender (mine starts out in Eevee, this is probably important). Add mesh (any mesh). Go into sculpt mode. Turn on dyntopo. Sculpt something quick (doesn't matter what). Do ctrl+z (undo). It should start z-fighting. Doing anything should make it stop. Important: For me, I could not get it to reproduce in Eevee again after switching to another engine - though it seemed to happen again when I added another mesh and tried to sculpt on it. Switch to either BI or BG. Obvious what happens here. Switch to cycles. Try to sculpt.
I figure I don't need to put a .blend.. not like it's anything crazy..