Short description of error
This report follows https://developer.blender.org/T51977. Now particle render with new depsgraph, but if modifiers visibility for viewport is off, there evaluation order is wrong. The order is good if the visibility is then switched on and off many times, until they appear at the right place.
Exact steps for others to reproduce the error
If the subdivision modifier is hidden in viewport, the particle system is evaluated, but at the wrong place. Only solution is to manually make it visible in viewport and change something that triggers a new evaluation many times, until it updates (like setting the particle system on and off. In some case, it has to be done 3 or 4 time to really update the particles positions)
This is the correct render after the hack explained above
This is the old and new depsgraph with modifiers evaluated in the wrong order