Operating system: Windows-7-6.1.7601-SP1 64 Bits
Graphics card: GeForce GTX 660 Ti/PCIe/SSE2 NVIDIA Corporation 4.5.0 NVIDIA 430.86
Broken: version: 2.80 (sub 74), branch: master, commit date: 2019-07-14 21:02, hash: rB65168825e0b0
Worked: version: 2.79 (sub 7), branch: blender2.7, commit date: 2019-05-23 08:19, hash: 054dbb833e15, type: Release
build date: 24/06/2019, 17:18
Short description of error
If you duplicate particle settings, make them unique, and tune, bake of dynamica will broken.
Finally I found how to reproduce it.
Create particle system that emits cubes (color A) from -50 to 50 frame with short lifetime (20).
Duplicate particle settings, make settings unique, rename it.
Change instance to another cube (color B), change working period to 50 — 100 frames.
Check work in the viewport. Bake all dynamics, Revert file.
Bug is not appere only if you create separate fully independent settings in the fresh file.
With independently created particles systems
Perhaps it can be connected with T61963
Looks like some data just stucks